|1. On Dec. 15, 1920, Woodrow Wilson's private secretary, Joseph Tumulty, phoned SG,
urging him to write this letter to the president to request clemency for Eugene Debs. He
intimated that such a request "would bear good results" (Memorandum Dictated by President
Gompers, Dec. 29, 1920, AFL Microfilm Convention File, reel 30, frame 1371, AFL Records).
2. See "Political Prisoners," June 16, 1920, in "Excerpts from News Accounts of the 1920
Convention of the AFL in Montreal," June 11-21, 1920, SG Papers, Vol 11.
3. Tumulty acknowledged SG's letter for the president on Dec. 16, 1920 (AFL Microfilm
Convention File, reel 30, frame 1371, AFL Records). The White House announced on
Christmas Eve that Debs would not be pardoned.
4. Charles Lee Swem (1893-1956), Wilson's personal stenographer and verbatim shorthand